Construct validity of the internalizing and externalizing problems questionnaire for children

Abstract

The empirical classification systems developed for the diagnosis of infant psychopathology establish two broad dimensions: internalizing and externalizing problems (IP & EP). The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the internalizing and externalizing problems scale for children (CPIEN, from its acronym in Spanish) to obtain a valid and reliable tool that help identify these problems in children from 8 to 12 years old (M = 9, SD = 1.1). Participants were 364 girls and 344 boys from elementary schools in Mexico City. The instrument was administered in classrooms, prior authorization from parents and school authorities. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed through the AMOS 21 software. The results showed good fit for the models; the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α) was also obtained (0.86). This confirmed the factorial structure of two dimensions. The Scale is a valid and reliable measure, useful to assess children with IP & EP.

https://doi.org/10.15174/au.2019.2158
PDF (Español (España))

References

Achenbach, T. M. (1966). The classification of children’s psychiatric symptoms: A factor-analytic study. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(7), 1-37. doi:10.1037/h0093906

Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1978). The classification of child psychopathology: A review and analysis of empirical efforts. Psychological Bulletin, 85(6), 1275–1301. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.85.6.1275

Achenbach, T. M., Ivanova, M. Y., & Rescorla, L. A. (2017). Empirically Based Assessment and Taxonomy of Psychopathology for Ages 1½-90+ Years: Developmental, Multi-Informant, and Multicultural Findings. Comprehensive Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2017.03.006

Achenbach, T. M., Ivanova, M. Y., Rescorla, L. A., Turner, L. V., & Althoff, R. R. (2016). Internalizing/externalizing problems: Review and recommendations for clinical and research applications. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(8), 647-656. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.05.012

Albores, G. L. (2008). ¿Puede el cbcl /1.5-5 distinguir entre el autismo y el déficit de la atención? (Tesis doctoral). Mexico: Facultad de Psicologia-UNAM.

Arbuckle, J. R. (2012). AMOS users guide version 21.0. Chicago, USA: Marketing Department, SPSS Incorporated.

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238-246. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238

Betancourt, D. (2007). Control parental y problemas internalizados y externalizados en niños y adolescentes (Tesis doctoral). Mexico: Facultad de Psicologia-UNAM.

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. New York, London: The Guilford Press.

Browne, M. W. & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge.

Caraveo A. J. (2007). Cuestionario breve de tamizaje y diagnóstico de problemas de salud mental en niños y adolescentes: algoritmos para síndromes y su prevalencia en la ciudad de México. Revista Salud Mental, 30(1).

Carragher, N., Krueger, R. F., Eaton, N. R., & Slade, T. (2015). Disorders without borders: Current and future directions in the meta-structure of mental disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(3), 339–350. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-014-1004-z

Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1991). Internalizing and externalizing expressions of dysfunctions: Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Coghill, D. & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2012). Annual research review: categories versus dimensions in the classification and conceptualization of child and adolescent mental disorders–implications of recent empirical study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(5), 469-489. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02511.x

Costello, E. J., & Maughan, B. (2015). Annual research review: optimal outcomes of child and adolescent mental illness. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(3), 324-341. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12371

Dougherty, L. R., Smith, V. C., Bufferd, S. J., Kessel, E., Carlson, G. A. and Klein, D. N. (2015). Preschool irritability predicts child psychopathology, functional impairment, and service use at age nine. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56 (9), 999–1007. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12403

Epstein, M. H. (2004). Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2: A Strength-based approach to assessment. Texas: proed.

Esquivel, A. F., Heredia, A. C. y Lucio, G. E. (2017). Psicodiagnóstico clínico del niño. México: Manual Moderno.

Eyberg, S. M. & Ross, A. W. (1978). Assessment of child behavior problems: The validation of a new inventory. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 7 (2), 113-116. doi: 10.1080/15374417809532835

Fanti, K. A. & Henrich, C. C. (2010). Trajectories of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from age 2 to age 12: findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1159-1175. doi: 10.1037/a0020659

Farmer, T. W., Irvin, M. J., Motoca, L. M., Leung, M. C., Hutchins, B. C., Brooks, D. S., & Hall, C. M. (2015). Externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, peer affiliations, and bullying involvement across the transition to middle school. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 23(1), 3-16. doi: 10.1177/1063426613491286.

Forns, M. (1993). Evaluación psicológica infantil. Barcelona: Barcanova.

Garber, J. (1984). Classification of childhood psychopathology: A developmental perspective. Child Development, 55(1), 30-48. doi: 10.2307/1129833

Gelabert, E., García-Esteve L., Martín-Santos R., Gutiérrez F., Torres A. & Subirà S., (2011). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in women. Psicothema, 23(1), 133-139. Disponible en: http://www.psicothema.com/pdf/3861.pdf

Goodman, R. (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581-586. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x

Hu, L., & Bentler. P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118

Hudziak, J. J., Achenbach, T. M., Althoff, R. R. & Pine, D.S. (2007). A dimensional approach to developmental psychopathology. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research , 16(S1), S16-S23. doi: 10.1002/mpr.217

Ivanova, M. Y., Achenbach, T. M., Dumenci, L., Rescorla, L. A., Almqvist, F., Weintraub, S., ... & Döpfner, M. (2007). Testing the 8-syndrome structure of the child behavior checklist in 30 societies. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(3), 405-417.

Lévy, J. P., & Mallou, J. (2006). Modelización con estructuras de covarianzas en ciencias sociales. España: Gesbiblo, S.L.

Lahey, B. B., Krueger, R. F., Rathouz, P. J., Waldman, I. D., & Zald, D. H. (2017). Validity and utility of the general factor of psychopathology. World Psychiatry, 16(2), 142-144. Doi: 10.1002/wps.20410

Lahey, B. B., Rathouz, P. J., Keenan, K., Stepp, S. D., Loeber, R., & Hipwell, A. E. (2015). Criterion validity of the general factor of psychopathology in a prospective study of girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(4), 415-422. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12300

Lucio, E. y Durán, C. (2010). Ficha socio-demográfica para niños [no publicado]. Manuscrito inédito

Márquez-Caraveo, M.E., Arroyo-García, E., Granados-Rojas, A., Ángeles-Llerenas, A. (2017) Hospital Psiquiátrico Infantil Dr. Juan N. Navarro: 50 años de atención a la salud mental de niños y adolescentes en México. Salud Pública 59(4), 77-484. doi.org/10.21149/8514

Masten, A. S., Burt, K., & Coatsworth, J. D. (2006). Competence and Psychopathology. En D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology, Vol 3: Risk, Disorder and Psychopathology (2nd ed. pp. 696-738). New York: Wiley.

Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 345–365. doi 10.1111/jcpp.12381

Reynolds, C. R. & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2a. ed. Minnesota: AGS Publishing.

Romero, E., Lucio, E. & Durán, C. (2016). Cuestionario de problemas internalizados y externalizados para niños con base en la clasificación dimensional. Psicología Iberoamericana 24(2), 8-16. Disponible en: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=133949832002

Rutter, M. (1967). The Rutter Behaviour Scales. Disponoble en: http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/text.asp?section=0001000100050017.

Rutter, M. (1989). Pathways from childhood to adult life. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 23–51. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00768.x

Sattler, J. M. (2010) Evaluación Infantil: Fundamentos cognitivos. México:Manual Moderno.

Van der Ende, J., Verhulst, F. C., & Tiemeier, H. (2016). The bidirectional pathways between internalizing and externalizing problems and academic performance from 6 to 18 years. Development and psychopathology, 28(3), 855-867. doi: doi:10.1017/S0954579416000353

Valencia, G. R. y Andrade, P. (2004). Validez del Youth Self Report para problemas de conducta en niños mexicanos. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 5(3), 499-520. Disponible en: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=33705306

Waldman, I. D., Poore, H. E., van Hulle, C., Rathouz, P. J., & Lahey, B. B. (2016). External validity of a hierarchical dimensional model of child and adolescent psychopathology: Tests using confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate behavior genetic analyses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(8), 1053-1066. doi: 10.1037/abn0000183

Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. & Summers, G. (1977). Assessing the reliability and stability in panels models. Sociological Methodology 8, 84-136. doi: 10.2307/270754

Willner, C. J., Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., & Bray, B. C. (2016). The dynamics of internalizing and externalizing comorbidity across the early school years. Development and psychopathology, 28(4pt1), 1033-1052. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579416000687

Zarate, O., Castro, C. & Garcia, G. (2009). Adaptacion del cuestionario sobre el comportamiento en niños de 1½ a 5 años de Achenbach para niños de 4 a 5 años. Enseñanza e Investigación en Psicología, 14(1), 179-1. Disponible en: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=29214113