Oxidative stress (OS) is considered a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders. Iron concentrations have been related to OS; however, the effect of iron deficiency (ID) on the induction of OS in the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. A murine model of chronic diet-induced ID using 2 month-old male BALB/c mice (6 specimen), was used to determine its role in OS induction. Lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) in the CNS, using the spleen for comparison. A decrease of peroxidation products in the CNS of the ID group (ID CNS), compared to controls fed on a regular diet, was found. The spleen showed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation in the ID group. Our results suggest that chronic ID may have differential effects on OS in the CNS and peripheral tissues. A decreased amount of reactive oxygen species in the basal state may be related to alterations on normal CNS metabolism and functions under chronic ID.